In the Old Town historical district of the city of Salinas, unreinforced masonry buildings were partially destroyed. The 6.9 earthquake, centered in the Santa Cruz Mountains, took the …  Dubbed "Lucky Buck" by the local radio, Helm lived for another 29 days on life support, but then died of respiratory failure at the age of 57. , When the earthquake hit, the third game of the 1989 World Series baseball championship was about to begin. The strongest earthquake to hit the area since the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 , it caused 63 deaths, nearly 3,800 injuries, and an estimated $6 billion in property damage. Other areas with certain soil conditions were susceptible to site amplification due to the effects of liquefaction, especially near the shore of San Francisco Bay (where its effects were severe in the Marina District) and to the west of the epicenter near rivers and other bodies of water. , The earthquake changed the Bay Area's automobile transportation landscape.  KRON-TV (at the time the region's NBC affiliate) was off the air for about half an hour, while KGO-AM (ABC News Radio) was off the air for about 40 minutes. The significant amount of vertical displacement in 1989 was a key aspect to consider because a long-term sequence of 1989-type events (with an 80–100-year recurrence interval) normally result in regions with high topographic relief, which is not seen in the Santa Cruz Mountains. Near Loma Prieta, the 1906 rupture was more shallow, had more strike-slip, and occurred on a fault that was near vertical.  Precursor increases of noise apparently started a few days before the earthquake, with noise in the range 0.01–0.5 Hz rising to exceptionally high levels about three hours before the earthquake. Street-level Mandela Parkway now occupies the previous roadbed of the Cypress structure.  One of these drivers did not see the open gap in time; the car plunged over the edge and smashed onto the collapsed roadbed. The 1989 Loma Prieta event originated on an undiscovered oblique-slip reverse fault that is located adjacent to the San Andreas Fault. THE FREEWAY DEAD: Portraits From Oakland - A special report. Guardians of the City. 12 deaths. Personal response- I enjoyed reading San Francisco Earthquake, 1989: by Victoria Sherrow, because it deals with real life earthquakes. If traffic had been normal for a Tuesday rush hour, injuries and deaths would certainly have been higher. , The ML 5.3 June 1988 and the ML 5.4 August 1989 events also occurred on previously unknown oblique reverse faults and were within 3 mi (4.8 km) of the M6.9 Loma Prieta mainshock epicenter, near the intersection of the San Andreas and Sargent faults.  Liquefaction also caused damage in the Watsonville area. The 1989 Loma Prieta San Francisco earthquake was the second most devastating earthquake in SF's history. Shaken regularly by powerful aftershocks, the San Francisco Bay Area emerged Wednesday from a fitful night to fina a 100-mile-long scene of damage from the deadliest American earthquake since the San Francisco great quake of 1906. A report of U.S. Army relief operations (Greely, 1906) recorded: . 498 deaths in San Francisco; 64 deaths in Santa Rosa; 102 deaths in and near San Jose; A 1972 NOAA report suggested that 700-800 was a reasonable figure. , After the earthquake occurred, a group led by Antony C. Fraser-Smith of Stanford University reported that the event was preceded by disturbances in background magnetic field noise as measured by a sensor placed in Corralitos, about 4.5 miles (7 km) from the epicenter. The 1989 event's oblique-slip rupture was at 10 km and below on a fault plane that dipped 70° to the southwest. ; 11 WHOSE LIVES ENDED AS QUAKE CRUSHED I-880. The earthquake significantly damaged the transportation system of the Bay Area. NBC Sports commentators Bob Costas and Jimmy Cefalo discussed the effect the temblor would have on the 1989 World Series. 498 deaths in San Francisco; 64 deaths in Santa Rosa; 102 deaths in and near San Jose; A 1972 NOAA report suggested that 700-800 was a reasonable figure. It was the strongest earthquake to hit the area since the San Francisco earthquake of 1906. Photos from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake that devastated the San Francisco bay region. San Francisco Earthquake, 1989: Death and Destruction (American Disasters) by Victoria Sherrow. San Francisco 1906 Earthquake Marriage Project–FREE After the shaking subsided, many of the players on both teams immediately searched for, and gathered, family and friends from the stands before evacuating the facility..  Cable cars and electric trains and buses were stalled in place – half of Muni's transport capability was lost for 12 hours. That earthquake was the largest to occur in the San Francisco Bay area since 1906.  Employees from Pacific Pipe drove heavy lift equipment to the scene and started using it to raise sections of fallen freeway enough to allow further rescue. Following each event, the State office of Emergency Services issued (for the first time in Bay Area history) short term advisories for a possible large earthquake, which meant there was "a slightly increased likelihood of an M6.5 event on the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault".  Instead of rebuilding Interstate 880 over the same ground, Caltrans rerouted the freeway farther west around the outskirts of West Oakland to provide better access to the Port of Oakland and the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, and to meet community desires to keep the freeway from cutting through residential areas (at the time the original viaduct was constructed, West Oakland was predominantly occupied by African and Hispanic-Americans). Library Binding, 9780766010604, 0766010600 Damage was severe in San Francisco and in other towns situated near the San … The earthquake caused 63 deaths and an estimated $6 billion in property damage. San Francisco Earthquake History 1915–1989.  Santa Cruz beach lifeguards assisted in moving the victims. The San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989, which was also called the Loma Prieta earthquake, was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989. Only 63 deaths were recorded as a result of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake, but over 3,500 people were injured. Caltrans has since received widespread backlash for not thoroughly studying the structure.  At the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, the Plunge Building was significantly damaged.  From October 5, they reported that a substantial increase in noise was measured in the frequency range 0.01–10 Hz.  Two police officers crawled through voids in the debris, found one victim alive and another dead inside the coffee house. Forty-two people were crushed to death in their cars. Damaged buildings in Santa Cruz, California, following the San Francisco-Oakland earthquake of 1989. , The June 27, 1988, shock occurred with a maximum intensity of VI (Strong). Jeffrey Choi, 50, San Francisco . Aerial view of the collapsed section of the Bay Bridge following the San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989.  In Moss Landing, the liquefaction destroyed the causeway that carried the Moss Beach access road across a tidewater basin, damaged the approach and abutment of the bridge linking Moss Landing spit to the mainland and cracked the paved road on Paul's Island. The duration of the heaviest shaking in the Santa Cruz Mountains was about 15 seconds, but strong ground motion recordings revealed that the duration of shaking was not uniform throughout the affected area (due to different types and thicknesses of soil). Seldom have 15 seconds wrought so much for so many. Research Loma Prieta earthquake cost $6B in 1989. The earthquake was triggered by a slip along the San Andreas Fault. Most of the quake deaths …  When the earthquake hit, the shaking was amplified on the former marshland, and soil liquefaction occurred. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Derek Van-Alstyne, 22, Foster City . Muni relied on diesel buses to continue abbreviated service until electric power was restored later that night, and electric units could be inspected and readied for service on the morning of October 18.  The San Francisco Fire Department selected civilians to help run fire hoses from a distance because the nearby hydrant system failed. The property damage price tag for the quake was over $5.9 Billion. No surface faulting occurred, though many other ground failures and landslides were present, especially in the Summit area of the Santa Cruz Mountains. The failure of a 1.25-mile (2.0 km) section of the viaduct, also known as the "Cypress Structure" and the "Cypress Freeway", killed 42 and injured many more. Earthquake-Associated Deaths -- California . The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred in Northern California on October 17 at 5:04 p.m. local time (1989-10-18 00:04 UTC). "SFFD Fireboats: The History of the Fireboat Phoenix. San Francisco earthquake of 1906, a major earthquake and fire that destroyed some 28,000 buildings and killed more than 3,000 people.  About an hour and 40 minutes after the quake, Fox affiliate KTVU resumed broadcasting, with their news anchors, Dennis Richmond and Elaine Corral reporting from the station's parking lot. KTVU anchors Dennis Richmond and Elaine Corral began their coverage from the station's parking lot, as power had not yet been restored to that section of Oakland. 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakeSan Francisco Earthquake of 1989. and Fire in San Francisco on April 18, 1906 This is an image roster of names compiled from newspapers of those persons who died as a direct result of injuries received either at the time of the earthquake and fire, or during the latter half of April 1906.  Police arrested those who refused to stop searching. As a consequence the normally crowded freeways contained unusually light traffic. But this season, baseball received its closest brush with what happened in 1989. , The contrasting characteristics of the 1906 and 1989 events were examined by seismologists Hiroo Kanamori and Kenji Satake. SAN FRANCISCO, Calif. – Saturday is a day many in the Bay Area will not forget.31 years ago today on Oct. 17, 19-89, the powerful deadly Loma Prieta earthquake hit at just after 5 in the evening. [Victoria Sherrow] -- Details the events surrounding the earthquake that took place in the San Francisco Bay Area in October 1989, as well as the clean-up and recovery efforts that followed. The final death toll of 63 was well below the 300 expected deaths. , Fifty-seven of the deaths were directly caused by the earthquake; six further fatalities were ruled to have been caused indirectly. 1989: Earthquake hits San Francisco. Ten Years After: First in a week-long retrospective of the Loma Prieta quake", "Claim Settled in the Only Quake Death, Injury on Bay Bridge", "25 Years Since Loma Prieta: Santa Cruz Journalist Has Photographic Memories of 1989 Quake", "89 quake: Wake-up call for Bay Area buildings", "Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Measurements Near the Epicenter of the M, "Loma Prieta Earthquake: 15 years later. Liquefaction was also a significant issue, especially in the heavily damaged Marina District of San Francisco, but its effects were also seen in the East Bay, and near the shore of Monterey Bay, where a non-destructive tsunami was also observed.. , Damage to the Salinas River rail bridge and subsequent repairs led to reduced traffic on the Monterey Branch Line, which contributed to the discontinuance of freight rail services in western Monterey County.  The apartment structures that collapsed were older buildings that included ground floor garages, which engineers refer to as a soft story building. Remarkably, the earthquake struck just before the start of the third game of the 1989 World Series, which was to be played in San Francisco’s Candlestick Park between the two Bay Area baseball teams, the San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics. Bryant Gumbel, Jane Pauley and Deborah Norville anchored from Chicago (where they had planned to originally do a special celebratory edition), with reports done by Bob Jamieson and Don Oliver in San Francisco, and George Lewis in Oakland. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the aftermath, all bridges in the area underwent seismic retrofitting to make them more resistant to earthquakes. For such an immense catastrophe, the official death toll of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 seemed, for many years, weirdly small — only 478, according to the Los Angeles Times.  Among the four deaths, one family lost their infant son who choked on dust while trapped for an hour inside their collapsed apartment. In San Francisco proper, the statistics present a blunt description of the damage: 12 deaths. The October 18, 1989 edition of NBC's Today that covered the earthquake ran until noon Eastern Time. It told me about the worse earth quake in 1989. Secondly, slip type could vary from event to event. The added elements were longitudinal restraints at transverse expansion joints in the box girder spans, but no studies were made of possible failure modes specific to the Cypress Viaduct.  The Goodyear blimp[which?] The disaster that I have chosen is an earthquake that occurred in San Francisco, California, US. , When the earthquake struck, the freeway buckled and twisted before the support columns failed and the upper deck fell on the lower deck. ), Power was restored to most of San Francisco by midnight, and all but 12,000 customers had their power restored within two days. The shock was centered in The Forest of Nisene Marks State Park approximately 10 mi (16 km) northeast of Santa Cruz on a section of the San Andreas Fault System and was named for the nearby Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains. Diane Laufer, 40, San Francisco Only 63 deaths were recorded as a result of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake, but over 3,500 people were injured. Fortunately, the same seismograph instrument at Gottingen, Germany was operating during both earthquakes. , An estimated 1.4 million people lost power following the quake, mainly due to damaged electrical substations. , In early 1988, the Working Group for California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) made several statements regarding their forecasts for the 225 mi (360 km) northern San Andreas Fault segment, the 56 mi (90 km) San Francisco Peninsula segment, and a 18.8–22 mi (30–35 km) portion of that segment which was referred to as the southern Santa Cruz Mountains segment. Now, yes, 478 is a lot of people, but considering that the earthquake and its resulting firestorms destroyed about 90 percent of San Francisco's structures, it seems hard to believe that number. , While the effects of a four-year drought limited the potential of landslides, the steep terrain near the epicenter was prone to movement, and up to 4,000 landslides may have occurred during the event. One 50-foot (15 m) section of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge also collapsed, leading to a single fatality, Anamafi Moala, a 23-year-old woman. An earthquake hits the San Francisco Bay Area on October 17, 1989, killing 67 people and causing more than $5 billion in damages. On October 17, 1989, at 5:04 p.m. Pacific daylight time, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the Richter scale, with an epicenter in the Loma Prieta section of the San Andreas fault, occurred in northern California (Figure 1). The first is that the geometry of the San Andreas Fault goes through a transition every several thousand years. Photos from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake that devastated the San Francisco bay region. Two moderate shocks, referred to as the Lake Elsman earthquakes by the USGS, occurred in the Santa Cruz Mountains region in June 1988 and again in August 1989. They have first-hand accounts of what it was like during the shaking and what it took to rebuild after each one.  The measurement instrument was a single-axis search-coil magnetometer that was being used for low frequency research.  The highest number of deaths, 42, occurred in Oakland because of the collapse of the Cypress Street Viaduct on the Nimitz Freeway (Interstate 880 - then CA-17), where the upper level of a double-deck portion of the freeway collapsed, crushing the cars on the lower level, and causing crashes on the upper level. the San Francisco Chronicle online has death notices from November 2000 to present. The book talks about big and little earthquakes that happen in San Francisco. Minor lateral spreading was also seen along the shores of San Francisco Bay and to the south near Monterey Bay. San Francisco earthquake, 1989 : death and destruction. Game 3 of the series was scheduled to begin at San Francisco's Candlestick Park on October 17 at 5:35 PDT, and American TV network ABC began its pre-game show at 5:00 PDT. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge was also damaged when a span of the top deck collapsed. 60 members of Oakland's Public Works Agency left the nearby city yard and joined rescue efforts. , The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge suffered severe damage, as a 76-by-50-foot (23 m × 15 m) section of the upper deck on the eastern cantilever side fell onto the deck below. (ed. With an Mw magnitude of 6.9 and a maximum Modified Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), the shock was responsible for 63 deaths and 3,757 injuries.  The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) turned people who were homeless prior to the earthquake away from homeless shelters and provided shelter for those with homes prior to the earthquake. Omissions? The baseball championship, which was suspended for 10 days, would come to be known as the “Earthquake Series.”. Take a look at ABC7's in-depth coverage of the Loma Prieta earthquake here . More listings of on-line obituary collections; San Francisco 1906 Earthquake Records.  Many other communities sustained severe damage throughout the region located in Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. The majority of landslides occurred to the southwest of the epicenter, especially along road cuts in the Santa Cruz Mountains and in the Summit Road area, but also along the bluffs of the Pacific Coast, and as far north as the Marin Peninsula. KGO-TV, the local San Francisco ABC affiliate (owned-and-operated) lost power for almost 15 minutes upon the start of the earthquake, before beginning its coverage with anchor Cheryl Jennings. WORLD SERIES PUSHED BACK. Oakland City Hall was evacuated after the earthquake until a US$80 million (equivalent to US$165 million today) seismic retrofit and hazard abatement work was completed in 1995. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Highway 17 was blocked for several weeks due to a large slide and one person was killed by a rockfall along the coast. The San Francisco-based punk music group Loma Prieta derived their name from the 1989 earthquake. Rush-hour traffic on the Bay Area freeways was lighter than normal because the game, being played at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, was about to begin, and this may have prevented a larger loss of life, as several of the Bay Area's major transportation structures suffered catastrophic failures. McNutt, S., and Sydnor, R. Broadcaster Al Michaels reflects on his experience at the World Series in 1989, when he leaned on his Bay Area background during coverage of the devastating Loma Prieta earthquake. , Immediately after the earthquake, Bay Area airports were closed so officials could conduct visual inspection and damage assessment procedures.  For example, sand volcanoes formed in a field near Pajaro as well as in a strawberry field. Santa Cruz Public Libraries. , The quake claimed one life in Watsonville: a driver who collided with panicked horses after they escaped their collapsed corral. Local History. The Loma Prieta se… Each event's aftershock sequence and effect on stress drop was closely examined, and their study indicated that the shocks affected the mainshock's rupture process. An updated forecast was presented in 1988, at which time Lindh took the opportunity to assign a new name to the San Juan Bautista segment – the Loma Prieta segment. SAN FRANCISCO (KGO) -- On October 17, 1989, a 6.9 magnitude earthquake ripped through the Bay Area. 300 injuries.  On October 21, survivor Buck Helm was freed from the wreckage, having spent 90 hours trapped in his car. The Goodyear blimp, present for the World Series game, was pressed into service providing aerial shots of the damage. , In Santa Cruz, the Pacific Garden Mall was severely damaged, with falling debris killing three people, half of the six earthquake deaths in Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties. Fortunately for victims of this catastrophe, coverages like property and business insurance were able to … Santa Cruz Public Libraries. Overall there were 63 deaths from this San Francisco earthquake. De Loma Prieta-aardbeving van 1989 was een grote aardbeving die op 17 oktober 1989 om 17:04 lokale tijd plaatsvond in de San Francisco Bay Area, in de Amerikaanse staat Californië.Een beweging in de San Andreasbreuklijn zorgde ervoor dat de aarde er 10 à 15 seconden schudde. Plot- This is about different earth quakes that happened in San Francisco. The strong motion records also allowed for the causative fault to be determined – the rupture was related to the San Andreas Fault System. USGS Media Gallery; References. Significant structural damage also occurred. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... A discussion of the lessons learned from the Loma Prieta (San Francisco–Oakland) earthquake of 1989. Other damage included cracked walls and foundations and broken underground pipes. The shock was centered in The Forest of Nisene Marks State Park approximately 10 mi (16 km) northeast of Santa Cruz on a section of the San Andreas Fault System and was named for the nearby Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! On October 17, 1989, at 5:04:15 p.m. (PDT), a magnitude 6.9 earthquake severely shook the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. Earthquake-Associated Deaths -- California . Oakland Airport repair costs were assessed at $30 million (equivalent to $65 million today). Killed in collapse of a brick wall: John J. Anderson, 29, Boulder Creek . San Francisco Earthquake History 1990–1994. Total displacement for these shocks was relatively small (approximately 4 in (100 mm) of strike-slip and substantially less reverse-slip) and although they occurred on separate faults and well before the mainshock, a group of seismologists considered these to be foreshocks due to their location in space and time relative to the main event. , The quake caused an estimated $6 billion (equivalent to $13 billion today) in property damage, becoming one of the most expensive natural disasters in U.S. history at the time. Click here for the lowest price! The quake struck with a moment magnitude of 6.9 on October 17, just before the start of the third game of the World Series, which was being held at San Francisco's Candlestick Park. These San Francisco Earthquake books include even more facts about the famous earthquakes in the region. 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